The link above is an article by Lynne McClure on developing number fluency. This article gives the “what, why, and how” for developing mathematical fluency in students.
McClure writes about how schools are interpreting standards in a way where teachers are feeding students “a pretty rigid and boring mathematical diet”. Formal mathematical algorithms are practiced in pursuit of mastery, but giving these calculations meaning has been put on the back burner.
McClure describes number fluency three modes of criteria: efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility. These criteria lend to effective communication of mathematical concept knowledge.
In one of my classes this semester, we created a Project Based Learning unit called City Zoning. In this assignment, our group created a project where students would analyze economic and engineering data to create a plan for developing a four block area. Students are required to calculate things such as area of buildings, interest on loans, net income, profitability per square feet, how long it would take businesses to pay off start-up loans, and tax income for the city for sustainability. Students will be required to write explanations for decisions made, give a verbal presentation of their plan, and construct a model to scale of the area. By doing this, students will practice efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility of mathematical knowledge.
The difficulty of creating opportunities for mathematical fluency is multifold. Creation of these types of units is very time consuming and finding activities other teachers that address these goals is not easy. There are a lot of activities online, but units such as these are that scaffold math concepts and put them together for solving real world problems are not very plentiful for teachers to share.
As educators, we want to prepare students with maximum readiness for entering the real world. Math fluency is an important part of critical thinking and decision making because math is what I call “the language of logic”. It is a mode of communication that students need to be able to thrive in an ever-changing society. The way teachers facilitate the learning of math fluency can be the difference in improving collective math achievement.
I had the opportunity to read “Making Room for Inspecting Mistakes” (link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PjEE0Y8SqMDVIVrETxgLDWCpX00aeDBO/view?usp=sharing) in this month’s issue of Mathematics Teacher from NCTM. The article discusses using mistakes to help students learn. One of the examples it utilizes is choosing a homework problem that is incorrect to go over for the entire class. Choosing these problems is artful because the teacher must ensure that the problem is going to be useful to the greatest amount of people in the class. There may be people in the class that would make the same mistake, others that get a better understanding of how to complete the problem because they did not know how to originally, and even others that understand where the mistake came from and how to combat it. There are three different contexts for leveraging mistakes that the article discusses: review of homework, during a task example, and during exam preparation. In each of these context, mistakes can be capitalized upon to help students grow in their understanding of the content that is being taught. During review for exams, it is a good check to ensure that students do understand what they have learned throughout the unit/semester/year.
This article prompted me to think about how making mistakes can be useful in the mathematics classroom. We have previously discussed how mistakes can be utilized to help students. Yesterday, and earlier today I had the opportunity to attend the SDEA Student Conference in Mitchell. One of the two breakout sessions utilized Breakout EDU. The concept of a Breakout EDU is similar to an escape room, but students are trying to break into a box. They can be bought online for different content areas. However, they do cost $125 so many teachers write grants to get Breakout boxes. Although escape rooms may just be a fad, Breakout boxes can benefit the classroom. After the activity, I began to think about when I would use Breakout EDU in my own classroom. I believe that these boxes could be useful at the beginning of the year to set a standard for collaboration between students, productive struggle, and making mistakes. Furthermore, during this time at the beginning of the year, a box could be useful as a review from the previous year’s material for the students. We saw in the lesson study that students were reluctant to productively struggle, and using a Breakout box could allow the students to start the year off participating in an activity that calls for productive struggle. Additionally, in the theme of making mistakes in the mathematics classroom, students are bound to make mistakes in their search for the answers to the clues. Using an activity such as Breakout EDU would allow the students to understand that making mistakes is beneficial, especially if they persevere in opening the box. Setting a standard for the benefits listed above of Breakout EDU in the classroom would help establish a particular environment in the classroom for the rest of the school year. This environment is aided in being established because after students complete the Breakout EDU, they discuss what went well for them, what problems they encountered, what did not go well, etc. The reflection is what cements the environment. Overall, there are clear benefits to making and going over mistakes in the mathematics classroom, and Breakout EDU could be used at the beginning of the year to establish an environment that promotes productive struggle, making mistakes, and collaboration between students.
Looking through articles on NCTM’s website, I cam across this really interesting one about how a math teacher was questioning his seven year old daughter about division. During that time he asked her what 18 minus 3 was, and while his daughter was thinking his five year old son spoke up quickly and said 15. Although this is the right answer and the young boy deserves recognition for coming up with the answer so quickly, it set something else off in the little girl.
It caused her to proclaim that she was no good at math when the reality is that she is rather good at math. The difference between the boy and girl in this example is that the boy had a natural intuition toward the answer, whereas the girl had to go through a thought process to get to it. This is often time the case on many levels of mathematics. Males often have a natural intuition to mathematics and are easy to quickly get the right answer, but females are often more likely to say something more insightful about the mathematics being performed. I have seen this happen many times from elementary school to college.
One jarring food for thought the article author gave was to have every educator reading the article to think of the best math students they have ever had. There is probably both men and women in that list. The men are probably the ones who naturally got answers, were laid back about homework and tests, and generally just floated by in the class. However, the women were probably the studious, hard workers, and generally cared about how they were doing in the class. It is shocking the bias that there is between men and women!
The author also observed that women often performed better on tests if it were emphasized that it was not as important to have the right answer as it was to have the right thought process laid out. Often times I have wished that professors would grade based on effort put into the class and not just whether I could recreate a proof on an exam.
As much as I would love to spite this article as total bologna and that women learn and approach math the same way as men, it has some interesting and good points. I remember always being naturally good at math, but not in the sense that I could blurt out answers. It was more that I can follow elaborate patterns and draw conclusions from large sets of data. Maybe men and women do approach math differently?
I always said one of the big reasons that I wanted to become a math teacher was I wanted to inspire young women to like mathematics. That goal has not changed. I want to take the information from this article and use it in the sense to emphasize the fact that answers are just as important as processes. Women are more than capable of doing the same mathematics as men, and I want to inspire my students to see that.
With my group doing our lesson on systems of equations, I decided to do this blog on exactly that. The first article that I found on the NCTM website about teaching systems of equations is titled “Rethinking the Teaching of Systems of Equations.” That article gave me this concept map for linear equations. This map really breaks it down well, splitting it up into representing, solving, interpreting, and conceptualizing. After splitting it up, it goes into further depth of each of those categories. For example, for representing systems of linear equations, it tells you that you can use technology, context, graphing, equations, and table of values.
After the concept map, it gives examples of different uses and representations of equations in figures 2-7. For example, in figure 5, it gives a representation of how you could use them in a consumer context and in figure 6, it gives an example of a graph representation.
The next article is titled “Problems before Procedures: Systems of Equations.” One thing I found interesting is a figure that gives different questions that teachers can use. I like this table because it gives different questions for two different approaches, graphing and algebraic. I believe that letting students struggle in math will help them in the long run. Instead of just giving them the answer when they are struggling, let them work through it. If at that point, they continue to not get where you want them to be, offer a leading question that could point them in the right direction. At no point do I think they should just be given the answer. I think that these questions are good examples of some that you can use.
This is a link to a site from Grand Canyon University. It is a set of guidelines for providing effective feedback to students individually or collectively. Feedback is a very important part to promoting growth, especially in the math classroom. I have heard the following statements numerous times in classrooms:
“Is this right?”
“What is the answer?”
“Did I do this right?”
Students, in a lot of cases, do not want to make mistakes. Finding a way to give students courage to go out on a limb and try things is something all teachers should strive for. A critical element to getting students to take chances is to provide effective feedback to students while they are in the process of learning.
The type of feedback a teacher gives is very important. Timing, amount, and audience should be considered when giving feedback to students. Punctual feedback should be given for things students turn in so that it is not forgotten. It’s important for the student to have the teacher to bounce struggles and ideas off of, but it is just as important for the student to become independent in learning mathematics. If the majority of a class is struggling with the same concept, it doesn’t make sense to address each student individually about the misconception.
From my experiences, it is very important that the student initiates the feedback from the teacher in some way. If the teacher does not know what the student is understanding correctly and where the misconception is, it’s very difficult to provide effective feedback. Students need to communicate what they know to a teacher for this to occur. Often times, however, students do not know what they are missing out on, making this very challenging. This is why the teacher needs to have a positive relationship with the student, understand how to ask questions to get the student to communicate their thought process, and be able to communicate in a way the student can understand.
I think it is important to actually schedule in periodic sessions where students and teacher can talk about thought processes. This gives students and the teacher an opportunity to, if nothing else, build the relationship and find out if the student is struggling with a concept or has developed a misconception.
I found an article from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics entitled Investigating Problem Solving Perseverance Using Lesson Study, and I found it very interesting. It tide together lesson, which is the main topic of our course right now, and it gave some really good insight on how to pose difficult problems such that students are going to struggle. The study then comes in on how to help get students get through that struggle, and to what degree of involvement should teachers have.
Through lesson study, a group of teachers conducted three different lesson studies at three different grade levels in order to study how well the students persevered.
The first group was a group of 10th grade algebra one students. The findings were that students would often get off task as soon as the teacher would not be next to their group. Some solutions they came up with were to assign roles to students, holding students accountable for progress for their groups work, and allowing students to only ask the teacher one question when the teacher would check up on the groups.
The second group was a group of 11th grade honors algebra two students. They seemed to stay more on task regardless of where the teacher was, but that could have been because the lesson was set up so that they received a new problem every ten minutes and had only ten minutes to work on it. A concern that this lesson brought up was that it was too scaffold-ed and did not allow for any point of open struggle or pondering. It was more of a follow a step by step thing to so, but the concept was a little more difficult.
The third group was a group of 7th graders. To the high school teachers’ surprise the middle schoolers were willing to work in groups and share ideas with other students. There was not as big of an issue in maintaining student interest at this level as there is in high school.
Perseverance was really looked at as students being willing to work through difficult problems, but needing reassurance at critical points in their work. By sharing out different strategies to attack a problem also shows a method of perseverance.
I really liked how the teachers in the article used lesson study as a point to look for perseverance. It shows the range of topics that lesson study can cover. I would like to use lesson study for checking for skills and point like perseverance and other topics. Lesson study is a really good tool for the classroom. Also, teaching students how to persevere through these problems is important because it teaches kids that they can do mathematics and teaches skills that pertain to larger parts of life.
If you were hoping for excuses to eat food while teaching math, this probably isn’t you blog post to read. Instead, I am writing about Yummy Math, which is a website that provides interesting lessons for students of all ages. While not the most visually appealing website, it is very useful for a math teacher looking for resources. . The lessons they have are about things that are useful or realistic (unlike the problems about buying 60 pumpkins or eating 20 candy bars). They are also aligned to standards. They have tags on every problem with the standards they are aligned to. There is also the option to search for lessons based on the standards you want to address. The lessons go from 2nd grade mathematics to high school. A one- year membership only costs twenty-two dollars and gets you access to all the materials that they have on the site.
As someone who will be student teaching next year, I’m always on the hunt for valuable resources to help me teach. I think that one of the best ways to do this is to find websites like Yummy Math. It can be a challenge if one wants lessons that are geared towards standards, challenging, and interesting to students, but we have to put in the work as teachers. It’d be great if we could come up with really fun yet challenging tasks for our students on a daily basis, but the truth is that there just isn’t always time in the day, especially if you have to teach five or six different classes each day. This is why great resources are important, and I’m happy to say I’ve found another one.